Home Type 2 Interaction of systemic or abdominal obesity with hypertension and risk of type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis in Iranian adults from the RaNCD Cohort Study | BMC Public Health

Interaction of systemic or abdominal obesity with hypertension and risk of type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis in Iranian adults from the RaNCD Cohort Study | BMC Public Health

by Shahab Rezaeian
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This study shows that the rates of hypertension, general obesity, and abdominal obesity are higher in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients. Interaction analysis revealed that there is a synergistic effect between blood pressure and obesity (systemic/abdominal) on the development of T2DM, and this synergistic effect remains significant after controlling for confounders. Ta. Simply put, when obesity and hypertension coexist, the risk of T2DM is greater than the sum of obesity and hypertension alone.

After adjusting for confounders, the risk of T2DM in people with generalized/abdominal obesity was 1.65 and 1.69 times higher than in those without generalized/abdominal obesity, respectively.According to some studies [9, 19,20,21] Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes, which is consistent with our results. In people with general obesity or abdominal obesity, accumulation of body fat causes hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which impairs glucose utilization by muscles and other tissues, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and T2DM. To do. [9, 19]And obese people have a higher risk of developing diabetes than non-obese people. [9]. Losing weight is an important first step to reducing the incidence of T2DM, especially in young people, as studies have proven that over 80% of the physiological dysfunction in metabolic syndrome is caused by obesity. [22]. Therefore, the more weight an obese or overweight person loses, the more likely they are to experience diabetes remission. [23]. The association between abdominal obesity and increased risk of diabetes was significant in the study population. And the association was stronger in women than in men. This fact can be explained by the higher prevalence of obesity in women. Additionally, women’s lower levels of physical activity, weight gain during pregnancy, and inability to regain ideal body weight compared to men may contribute to the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes in women. . [20]. According to our study, Wang et al. conclude that general obesity defined by BMI or central obesity defined by WHpR may be a contributing factor in women with diabetes and hypertension. . The simultaneous presence of hypertension with elevated BMI, WC, WHtR, and WHpR was associated with the highest risk of developing diabetes. [24].

The association between hypertension and T2DM was significant, with hypertensive individuals having a 1.5-fold increased risk of T2DM compared to non-hypertensive individuals, which is consistent with previous studies. [9, 25, 26]. We demonstrate the importance of effectively managing blood pressure and BMI to prevent the onset and progression of diabetes. [9].

However, knowledge regarding the interaction between systemic/abdominal obesity, hypertension, and risk of T2DM is limited. The results of this study showed that the interaction between hypertension and abdominal obesity in men and women was 2.46 times her and 3.97 times her risk of T2DM. The interaction effects of hypertension and general obesity in men and women were 2.66 and 2.87, respectively. This result is consistent with the findings by Conghui Hu et al. [9]. Several studies have investigated the interaction effect of her two risk factors on increased risk of disease and have found similar results. Previous studies have found a family history of dyslipidemia and diabetes. [27]have a family history of diabetes and hypertension [28]and having a family history of diabetes, and waist-to-height ratio all act synergistically to influence the development of diabetes. [29, 30]. Another study showed that family history and being overweight had a synergistic relationship with the development of diabetes, and that the independent effects of the two factors were not significant. [29].The presence of hyperlipidemia and family history of diabetes in a normotensive population could potentially have a synergistic effect on diabetes. [9]. Studies like the one mentioned above show that conditions such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and family history can increase or decrease the likelihood of developing diabetes, and that the cumulative incidence of the disease is more likely to cause diabetes than the harm caused by a single disease. has been proven to have a significant impact on complex condition.

Obesity can affect blood pressure through various mechanisms, including increased sympathetic nerve activity via leptin and activation of the renin-angiotensin system. In addition, insulin resistance is associated with increased sodium retention and increased blood pressure due to high-sodium diets. [31]. The association between hypertension and T2DM can be explained by factors such as elevated blood glucose levels, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. All these factors contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition that can both cause characteristic vascular narrowing and increased peripheral arterial resistance.Characteristics of hypertension [32].

The interactive effects of obesity and hypertension on diabetes have important implications for clinical practice, as they indicate that these conditions should not be considered in isolation, but as interrelated components of the metabolic syndrome. I am. Therefore, there is a need to implement comprehensive strategies to prevent and treat obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes and to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by them. Evidence-based strategies include lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, physical activity, dietary interventions, and drug therapy. [12].

This study investigates for the first time the relationship between two risk factors, obesity and hypertension, in T2DM in a substantial group of Iranians. Potential confounding variables (except genetic conditions) were controlled in our study. The current study has a number of limitations, one of which is the cross-sectional design of the study and the inability to prove a causal relationship between risk factors and disease. Therefore, longitudinal studies are recommended to confirm the results of this study.

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